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    Scholars suggest that Philotas was the governor of Mysia, while Bithys is probably a hyparchos of the locality in which the inscription was found. The parallel to be drawn from these dossiers is clear. The date of this mission is uncertain, and it is to be placed either in B. Oxford , ; L. Capdetrey, Le pouvoir séleucide: Rennes , ; J.

    Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Leiden , ; Gera , H. Wien , Gera , Gera , Herrmann, Chiron 17 upon the succession of Antiochus IV to the throne.

    According to Cotton and Wörrle there may have been a time gap between the two Apollonioses. Dov Gera argues that this name in 2Macc 3: As the last attested date for Ptolemaios governorship is B.

    It is also worth mentioning that a certain Ptolemaios son of Dorymenes appears as a member of the court of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. A person of the same name is mentioned in 1Macc and other sources in connection with the events of , where he is listed as the first of three Seleucid generals beside Nicanor and Gorgias, who were entrusted to annihilate the rebellious Hasmoneans.

    The date refers to the letters of ll Gera ,. The date of the Heliodorus affair Hellenistic kings were pleased to increase their popularity by showing generosity to temples both Greek and non-greek whenever their resources permitted, 21 Antiochus III was, however, killed attempting to rob a temple in B. Many scholars do not reject the tale of the attempt by Heliodorus to despoil the Temple, and explain the miraculous outcome as a fanciful version of a more mundane solution of the crisis reached by the Jews and the Seleucid government.

    During the campaign, the king had received some help from the Jews 2Macc 3: It is said of Antiochos III s son and heir, Seleucus IV, that he furnished all ongoing expenses for the performance of sacrifices out of his own income 2Macc 3: Notwithstanding, king Seleucus IV also inherited the harsh terms of the Apamea treaty.

    The Seleucids had to pay Rome s war expenses, the sum of 15, talents. Five hundred talents were to be handed over immediately, an additional 2, talents paid after the agreement was ratified in Rome, and the remainder transferred to Rome in 12 yearly installments. According to Dov Gera the appointment of Olympiodoros seems to have been part of an 21 Bickerman , Fischer ; Gera , ; Schwartz ; Kennell ; Ego Gera , Elias Bickerman proved the authenticity of this royal decree Bickerman At this point, however, Dov Gera makes a mistake, applying the Seleucus IV s dossier from Maresha to the story of Heliodoros in 2Macc We should, however, emphasize that the exact date of the Heliodoros affair was not precisely defined in 2Macc.

    If we accept its basic historicity, it could have happened at any time during the twelve-year-long reign of Seleucus IV B. Let us now turn back to the Second Book of the Maccabees which refers to the aftermath of the Heliodorus affair as well.

    According to Jason of Cyrene supposedly the author of the 2Macc Helidoros was grateful to Onias III, the high priest, because of his miraculous healing, and marched back with his army to the king 2Macc 4: But Seleucus IV and Heliodoros himself did not abandon his project to take over the treasures of the Jerusalem Temple.

    They could not, because they had to pay the yearly installments to Rome. The story continues as follows: He will come back to you scourged, if he survives at all, because a divine power truly surrounds the place 2Macc 3: We do not know how many time passed since the Heliodoros affair.

    Could it be possible that Olympiodoros, the syntrophos, chamberlain and one of the First Friends of Seleucus IV was the secret enemy of the sovereign, who was sent instead of Heliodoros to Jerusalem? It is not an unlikely hypothesis, if we assume that the Heliodoros affair happened between B.

    In consequence of this, we do not need to assume as Dove Gera does that the Seleucid official who confronted the Jerusalem authorities was in fact Olympiodoros and not Heliodoros. Ma is of the same opinion. For it was Heliodoros who was blamed for the king s ultimately death, as can be learned from a later source Appian.

    The author of 2Maccabees seems to be aware of this Thus, in both rank and character, Heliodoros would have been a more suitable choice for the role of Seleucid official who overrules the objections of the righteous Onias III, but suffers the consequences at the hands of God s emissaries. Conspicuosly, the author of 2Macc does not present Seleucus IV as an evil king. This journey have taken place in the final days of the king, because Jason of Cyrene does not tell a single word about the decision of Seleucus IV, but suddenly refers to the king s death and succession of the throne when Seleucus passed away and Antiochus, called Epiphanes, succeeded to the throne, 2Macc 4: There is no mention of Heliodoros coup d état, murder or theodicy.

    We possess only one historical source which refers to the king s murder: Bengtson, Die Strategie in der hellenistischen Zeit: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staatsrecht, vols.

    Bickerman, La Charte séleucide de Jérusalem. Leiden , II ]. Bickerman, Institutions des Séléucides. Burstein, The Aftermath of the Peace of Apamea. Wörrle, Seleukos IV to Heliodoros. Ego, God s Justice: Fischer, Heliodor im Tempel zu Jerusalem: Gera, Judaea and Mediterranean Politics to B.

    Kennell, New Light on 2 Maccabees 4: Journal of Roman Studies 57 1 8. Schwartz, Divine Punishment in Second Maccabees: Vengeance, Abandonment or Loving Discipline?

    Festschrift für Hermann Lichtenberger zum In Horace s Epistle to Augustus the estimate of Terence may be less positive than is generally believed. This reinterpretation is based first on classical views of acoustic concinnity, then on etymological considerations. Terentius, Horatius, labor limae, homoeoptotic homoeoteleuton, callida iunctura The article on Terence in Enciclopedia Oraziana opens with the following sentence: Dal giudizio assai poco lusinghiero che H.

    Here Minarini understands ars as denoting labor limae. This epistle to the princeps himself repeatedly preaches the importance of labor limae. Part of this concern with labor limae is to ensure ne ultima syllaba prioris verbi eadem sit quae prima posterioris. Index librorum scriptorum inscriptionum. Enciclopedia Oraziana 1 The same view is taken by P.

    Rome , ad loc. The prescription is found already in Isocrates, Tech. Here the violation of the precept cannot be excused on prosodic grounds by the need for a pyrrhic sequence in the fifth biceps to assure a dactyl, since in this case the fifth foot is not at issue, but the fourth.

    The inelegance of -te Te- could moreover have been easily avoided by a grouping such as arte valere Terentius. Such purposive lack of polish can be shown to have been deployed elsewhere in Horace s oeuvre in order to underline his meaning. Further confirmation of this view would seem to be supplied by the other word which Horace devotes to his treatment of Terence: The very same sentence of Julius Victor as the one censuring such a collocation as -te Te- also issues the following prohibition: The second hemistich of the line at issue in the present note is the cause of some puzzlement to Brink, who comments: In particular the whole word arte is a virtual homophone of the second half of the foregoing noun -ate.

    The element te is accordingly found conspicuously at the beginning or end of three consecutive words: Latomus , The first of these inconcinnities entails a breach of the same precept at issue in the present -te Te-. Brink, Horace on Poetry: The Letters to Augustus and Florus. In particular this te frames the two words that deal with Terentian drama in the present epistle: Horace has accordingly succeeded in packing a lot of auditive inconcinnity into a mere three feet. No such inelegance marks the preceding ten lines that make up the rest of this survey of old Roman poetry.

    After the line that ends with Terentius arte Horace continues: Here the hos are the poets of the foregoing survey. These two verses that deal with them would appear to be marked by etymological word-play.

    The article on Etimologia in Enciclopedia Oraziana ends by observing that e. He wishes to show by acoustic means that the conventional view of Terence is wrong. Enciclopedia Oraziana 2 For recent attempts to identify Horatian etymologizing cf. Etymologizing in Epode 2, For etymologizing in the Horatian scholia cf. The Commentators on Horace. Brown University , Brink, op. All these commentators likewise miss the afore-mentioned inconcinnities.

    Artus is not an appropriate epithet to qualify theatrum: The fidelity of Terentian translation is notorious: The same wording is used in the immediately preceding line of the Ars Poetica , where Horace condemns this practice: The Epistle to Augustus is accordingly making the wry suggestion that Terence s theatrical art is not a virtue , but on the contrary narrow literality artum.

    It may be said in conclusion that here Horace s treatment of ars would seem to qualify as a good example of callida iunctura AP Cairns, Ancient Etymology and Tibullus: On the Classification of Etymologies and on Etymological Markers. Goetz, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum 7. Amsterdam , s. No further instance of the application of artus to theatrum is provided by the online Library of Latin Texts. Similarly theatro, with which arto agrees, is assigned the same emphatically final sedes as arte in the line directly above.

    La discussione dell erronea lezione di Oct. Il contesto tematico e stilistico Nella prospettiva di uno studio sistematico della tradizione manoscritta dell Octavia un passaggio fondamentale è costituito dai vv , che vanno preliminarmente collocati nel contesto della prima fra le due scene ; delle quali è protagonista Seneca 1.

    Si tratta di una sequenza monologica in cui il personaggio dapprima lamenta d essere stato innalzato dalla sorte ai fastigi del potere per poi rovinare gravius e sopportare la vista di tot metus , quindi rimpiange l esilio in Corsica, dove poteva dedicarsi agli studi e godere dello spettacolo offertogli dalla volta celeste , infine preconizza la catastrofe del genere umano e la palingenesi del mondo Il personaggio a questo punto inserisce un excursus sulla storia del cosmo, prospettata come ciclo tetrastico di generazioni che procedono fatalmente da una condizione di felicità edenica , collocata tenente regna Saturno poli e dunque coi tratti distintivi della bella età de l oro di tassiana 1 I vv costituiscono il punto di forza di quanti negano la paternità senecana dell Octavia ritenendo irrituale la presenza nel dramma antico di personaggi viventi e tanto più l autorappresentazione dell auctor Aug.

    Dei 2, 9, riassumendo e parafrasando Cic. Si tratta tuttavia di argomentazione non del tutto cogente, dato che siamo a conoscenza di almeno due drammi l Agen e la praetexta de itinere ad Lentulum ruotanti sulla contemporaneità e quindi su personaggi vivi e vegeti rispettivamente Alessandro Magno e Cornelio Balbo Minore che, tra l altro, le fonti Ath.

    L excursus fornisce quindi le coordinate generali di una teodicea che nel progresso materiale dell umanità, sollecitata a soddisfare i bisogni primari dalla 2 Vd. Peri, Ma il quarto dov è? Indagine sul topos delle bellezze femminili. Pisa , pp Ovvio il riferimento a Hes. Vernant, Il mito esiodeo delle razze. Tentativo di analisi strutturale.

    Studi di psicologia storica. Torino , pp , spec ; Arat sulla cui scia si pongono i traduttori latini dei Phaenomena, da Cicerone ad Avieno ; Ov. Sulla riduzione del mito ad opposizione binaria età aurea vs età ferrea vd. Pianezzola, Forma narrativa e funzione paradigmatica di un mito.

    L età dell oro latina. Modelli retorici e forma narrativa. Bologna , pp In genere, poeti e scrittori che trattano il mito delle aetates mundi strutturano il discorso secondo una linea diacronica che dall aurea aetas giunge alla ferrea, individuata di solito nel presente: Spesso in Virgilio questo motivo è collegato a finalità panegiristiche: Non sempre, comunque, il confronto si risolve in bilancio negativo per l età presente: Leopardi, La ginestra 51 di Vitr. Presentano questa chiave di lettura i versi relativi al tertium genus, nei quali il Seneca agens enumera le strategie caccia, pesca, domesticamento, agricoltura con le quali esso reperisce le risorse alimentari.

    La struttura sintattica e stilistica della sequenza consta di una protratta serie di cola paralleli pred. Altra vistosa caratteristica formale è il ricorso all enjambement, per cui la menzione di ciascuna ars non coincide con la misura del verso, ma si protende nell emistichio del verso successivo: Quando il Seneca personaggio delinea le caratteristiche del tertium genus, ricorre agli aggettivi sollers, sanctum, inquietum in funzione di predicativi retti da extitit, ciascuno dei quali accompagnato da un modificatore, complemento indiretto o avverbio, rispettivamente novas ad artes, tamen, mox.

    Ci riporta invece ad un contesto analogo a quello dell Octavia rievocazione dell aetas aurea in opposizione binaria al presente, prospettato più o meno esplicitamente come aetas ferrea Sen.

    Mela 1, 65 Phoenicen inlustravere Phoenices, sollers hominum genus et ad belli pacisque munia eximium: Il mondo antico, mentre accoglie senza riserve la caccia eroica della tradizione mitica ed epica 12, dal carattere agonistico e premilitare, che l uomo esercita inseguendo di corsa la preda 13, generalmente sottopone a censura culturale qualunque forma di caccia finalizzata all alimentazione o comunque praticata con l ausilio di reti o esche 14, che si configurano come vera e propria fraus.

    Questo è tanto più vero per l aucupium o uccellagione, che pure sotto il profilo economico doveva essere molto più significativa e diffusa presso i ceti meno abbienti, anche per il basso costo delle attrezzature richieste. Per il ricorso alla metafora della fraus e dell adescamento in contesti dedicati all aucupium, vd. Hugo de Sancto Victore, Didascalicon de studio legendi 2, 25 Venatio dividitur in ferinam, aucupium et piscaturam.

    Longo, Le regole della caccia nel mondo greco-romano. Aufidus 1 , p Vd. E ancora, la caccia è legittima quando obbedisce a scopi difensivi: Unica eccezione Cassiodoro, che riconosce sporadica cautela anche agli uccelli: Di ancor minore considerazione godeva, nel mondo antico, la pesca 16, priva com è delle valenze agonistiche della caccia, dal momento che i pesci sono per lo più inermi e la loro cattura è interamente basata sul ricorso ad esche e reti, in una parola sull uso di insidiae: Non sfuggirà, a questo punto, che l autore dell Octavia, operando un inversione rispetto alla graduatoria consueta, colloca l uccellagione al massimo grado della fraus, ribaltamento cui potrebbe non essere estranea la promozione della pesca operata dagli Halieutica, ovidiani o pseudoovidiani che siano Non di rado, l aucupium viene sfruttato nelle similitudini come figurante dell adescamento per eccellenza: La Penna, La disputa sul primato della caccia o della pesca nell antichità, Philologus , p Vd.

    In secondo luogo ai vv colpisce nell economia generale dell excursus lo scarsissimo rilievo dato dall autore della praetexta alla seconda suboles, ché ad essa è riservato appena un complemento predicativo, minus mitis Oct: Zwierlein, Kritischer Kommentar zu den Tragödien Senecas. A play attributed to Seneca. Cambridge New York , pp , n. Delisle, Cabinet des manuscrits I-II. Paris , pp ; A. Studia Copernicana 1 , pp.

    Giunto nelle mani del teologo Gérard d'abbeville P. Glorieux, Bibliothèques de Maîtres parisiens: Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 36 , pp ; P.

    La vie de Gérard d Abbeville. Archives d histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 31 , pp , è tra i testi della biblioteca di Amiens che giunsero alla Sorbona per suo tramite R. Siglato convenzionalmente P, il manoscritto appartiene alla famiglia del ramo A della tradizione.

    Questa famiglia, geograficamente riconducibile all area compresa tra la Francia del Nord e le Fiandre, include oltre a P, un secondo Parisinus Latinus risalente all inizio del XV sec. Leo, De Senecae tragoediis observationes criticae. In base a siffatta scelta la congiunzione disgiuntiva vel introdurrebbe l introduzione di un metodo alternativo dell aucupium decipere crate oppure tenere laqueo , parallelamente al v. Lugduni Batavorum , p. Busche, Zu Octavia praet. Paris segnala nel testo una lacuna dopo crate e in apparato cita la proposta di Leo, op.

    Incertorum auctorum Hercules Otaeus, Octavia. Oxford crate vel tereti vagas predicativo dell oggetto implicito volucres, che fu già del Siegmund. Peiper, Praefationis in Sen. Peiperi subsidiis instructus denuo edenda curavit. Siegmund, Zur Textkritik der Tragödie Octavia. Leipzig Wien , in base a Sen. Bonn e condivisa in apparato da Düring, sulla scia di Leo 25, ipotizza che il sostantivo crate sia stato originariamente vergato nel subarchetipo A o in suo apografo come variante di rete nello spazio interlineare corrispondente all attuale verso Notes on the text of Seneca s tragedies.

    Boyle, Octavia attributed to Seneca. Oxford , integrazione che ha goduto e gode di maggior fortuna. Bologna , ad loc. Altrettanto dicasi per Ferri, op. Aeneas costas et cratis pectoris ensem o designare maforicamente tutto quanto risulti inestricabile Oros. D altronde anche Ferri esclude che cratis possa essere connesso con la caccia: Talvolta reti di tal fatta venivano stese sulle fronde degli alberi con l aiuto di canne aucupatoriae.

    A parer nostro, tuttavia, prima ancora di affrontare lo spinoso problema del v. In senso proprio calamus designa una pianta palustre dagli innumerevoli usi e campi d applicazione: In senso traslato calamus designa spesso per metonimia oggetti che da esso rarisque textu veluti nassis in alto iactis inoltre 21, ; 32, , per cui cfr.

    Ecce etiam per antemnam pelagiae consederant volucres, quas textis harundinibus peritus artifex tetigit; illae viscatis inligatae viminibus deferebantur ad manus. Tollebat plumas aura volitantes, pinnasque per maria inanis spuma torquebat: Longo, La caccia al pesce. Lévêque, , pp Cfr. Aucupium fit laqueis, pedicis, retibus, arcu, visco, hamo. Per questa sua qualità il calamus è il materiale ideale per le frecce: In ogni caso la iunctura non è mai usata né per la canna da pesca né per la canna aucupatoria.

    Calamus vero alius totus concavus, quem vocant syringian, utilissimus fistulis, quoniam nihil est ei cartilaginis atque carnis. Orchomenio et nodi continuo foramine pervii, quem auleticon vocant. Hic tibiis formata da due canne utilior, fistulis ille flauto di Pan, costituito da una serie di canne di sposte in ordine di lunghezza.

    Il fatto che syringia e auleticon siano cavi, privi di sostanza cartilaginosa e graciles come poi viene precisato a , paragrafo interamente dedicato alle canne di E allora altamente probabile che calamo levi anche in Oct.

    Già abbiamo manifestato le nostre perplessità dinanzi all ipotesi che crate del v. Dei termini che, in contesti dedicati all aucupium, ricorrono come sinonimi di calamus, ovvero harundo, canna, ames, i primi due sono sicuramente troppo comuni per richiedere una glossa; d uso estremamente raro risulta invece ames, per cui cfr.

    E probabile che ad un significato del genere avesse pensato già N. Troviamo il verso oraziano citato in un anonimo trattato di metrica, i Fragmenta Sangallensia ad res metricas pertinentia, De iambico trimetro e cod. Quanto all aut levi che chiude il verso, occorre tenere presente che il tradito dei codici non è unanime, presentando in alternativa l abbreviazione di ante 42, che paleograficamente poco si distingue dalla nota tachigrafica per aut: Thuaneus sigla B , uno dei due codici che trasmettono gli Halieutica di Ovidio l altro è il Vindobonensis noto come A: XII-XIII ipotizza attendibilmente che l apografo comune di B ed A fosse scritto in una corsiva precarolina caratterizzata dalla -a- a forma di cc accostate, quale possiamo rintracciare nella minuscola insulare, nella cosiddetta merovingica di Luxeuil e di Corbie, oltre che nella beneventana.

    Analogo errore presenta il Thuaneus, che contiene ai ff un miniflorilegio delle tragedie senecane secondo la redazione E per l esattezza Tro , Med , Oed e e che per Tro. Zwierlein, Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Ausgabe der Tragödien Senecas.

    Il che apre la possibilità che anche l Octavia possa essere stata presente nella tradizione E in una fase precedente alla composizione dell Etruscus o del suo antigrafo. L attendibilità di tale proposta, coerente anche con l imitatio oraziana affiorante qua e là nel testo dell Octavia 46, trova ulteriori riscontri sotto il profilo metrico: Avremmo pertanto una struttura di tal fatta: Un possibile integrazione è l infinito fallere 49, con desinenza poco 45 Per la poesia mediolatina cfr.

    Johannis de Garlandia, Epithal. Per un computo statistico delle occorrenze di dattili in terza sede su un totale dei trimetri giambici presenti nel corpus delle tragedie senecane vd. O Sufficientemente attestata la compresenza di fallere e decipere nel medesimo contesto: Il quadro sin qui delineato risulta poi coerente con la struttura sintattica e stilistica dell intero passaggio, che ha i suoi tratti caratteristici: In funzione simbolica, Hil.

    Sic quoque et anima nostra caveat ad haec mundana descendere. Laqueus in auro, viscum est in argento, nexus in praedio, clavus in amore. Dum aurum petimus, strangulamur: Quin etiam mulieris decus, dum temptatur, adstringit.

    The final seven epigrams of Martial s Book 1 form a subtle but important closural sequence epigrams inclusive. Despite their great variatio of topics, the seven epigrams are linked through concerns about the boundary between life and death, the integrity of a monument, and the theme of dignus legi, or what makes someone worthy of being read.

    Through a series of close readings, this article argues for the coherence of this sequence on formal, thematic, and verbal grounds. The sequence is centered on a pair of epigrams on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young girl named Antulla 1.

    The function of this closural sequence is both formal, to bring closure to a disparate collection of epigrams, and thematic, to reprise themes from the mock-epitaph with which Martial opens book 1 1. Martial, epigram, closure, fama, poetry book, Antulla, tomb, epitaph, naming. A book of epigrams, especially one with a variatio of subject matter as dramatic as that of Book 1 of Martial, can appear to be of arbitrary length and arrangement.

    The author or editor of a given epigram book uses variatio of tone, theme, et cetera to prevent boredom over the course of a collection of a hundred or more epigrams, and techniques of unification such as overarching subject matter and self-referential opening and closing sequences to give the book coherence if not architecture.

    The editors and authors of Hellenistic epigram collections, as observed by Kathryn Gutzwiller, use a single topic to unify a given book. Martial uses the very variatio that could work against artistic unity and, instead, exploits this variatio to create finely crafted substructures that bring closure, and thereby formal coherence, to his Book 1.

    Hellenistic Epigrams in Context. All flaws that remain are my own. These epigrams form a carefully crafted symmetrical arrangement that despite the apparent heterogeneity of theme in fact is, itself, internally coherent both formally and thematically. I disagree, therefore, with readers such as Johannes Scherf who argue that the closural sequences of Martial s books are weniger kohärent than the opening sequences; I maintain that the closural sequence of Book 1, at least, is subtle but, upon close inspection, very coherent.

    In addition, these epigrams, collectively, play with the tension between a linear journey of indeterminate length and the fixed, integral monuments, and between the busy, bustling, quotidian city and the tranquil, timeless countryside. The placement of this symmetrical sequence at the very end of Book 1 thematizes the end of the book: All of these thematic and formal characteristics, not consistent but coherent, combine to highlight the theme of dignus legi, the question of what makes someone the patron, the deceased person, or the poet himself worthy of being read.

    The symmetry of the seven-epigram closural sequence depends upon a closely matched pair of poignant sepulchral epigrams. These two epigrams, both on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young, unmarried woman named Antulla, form a strong diptych with one another, 4 each being three couplets in length.

    They frame the middle epigram of the symmetrical sequence 1. The centrality of the two tombstone epigrams as third and fifth in the seven-epigram sequence invites us to ask what this sequence of epigrams does for us thematically and formally. Scherf, Untersuchungen zur Buchgestaltung Martials. Munich and Leipzig , For a theoretically sophisticated treatment of Martial s book as monument, see pages in L. Journal of Roman Studies 91 O. Gli epigrammi funerari per Erotion in Marziale.

    Materiali e discussioni per l analisi dei testi classici 48 , On the Antulla pair as kepotaphion and its literary context, see A. Manzo, La fonte greca degli epigrami sepolcrali di Marziale. Milan , , esp. Hic est quem legis ille, quem requiris toto notus in orbe Martialis argutis epigrammaton libellis.

    Here he is, the one whom you read, the one whom you ask for, Martial, known throughout the entire world for his witty little books of epigrams. Dedicated reader, the recognition which you have given him while he is alive and able to know it few poets have even after the grave. The themes that Martial first starts to play with in epigram 1. The World of the Epigram. Chicago , See M. Valerii Martialis Epigrammaton liber primus.

    Introduzione, testo, apparato critico e commento. The sequence consists of three symmetrical, concentric pairs, which I shall describe below, emanating from a central epigram as follows: The outermost ring of the sequence, epigrams and or the first and seventh in the sequence, consists of two poems, each one couplet in length, that dramatize conversations and social posturing between two men, one 1.

    Of these seven epigrams, two substructures stand out: However, epigrams and 1. The sequence opens thus: Cum te non nossem, dominum 8 regemque vocabam: When I didn t know you, I called you lord and king: Epigram The sequence starts with a one-couplet epigram on the conventions of naming in the context of patronage.

    The speaker makes a play on the name of his patron initially addressed by the honorifics dominus and rex , turning a cognomen into an impudent claim to long-standing familiarity with the higher-status addressee.

    The following epigram, 1. Quaecumque lusi iuvenis et puer quondam apinasque nostras, quas nec ipse iam novi, male collocare si bonas voles horas et invidebis otio tuo, lector, a Valeriano Pollio petes Quinto, per quem perire non licet meis nugis.

    Whatever I played at as a youth once, and as a boy, and our trifles, which I myself no longer recognize, if you want to pass your good hours badly and if you bear ill-will toward your free time, reader, seek them from Quintus Pollius Valerianus, who does not allow my nuggets to perish.

    Epigram Here, Quintus Valerianus Pollius preserves and makes available the poet s juvenilia which the speaker-poet rhetorically disparages, either as a show of not wanting his mature work to be diluted by inferior poetry, or as an oblique way of drawing attention to the loyalty that his verse inspires.

    Shackleton Bailey, Martialis Epigrammata. Hos tibi vicinos, Faustine, Telesphorus hortos Faenius et breve rus udaque prata tenet. Faenius Telesphorus holds these gardens next to you, Faustinus, and this little estate and moist meadows. Here he has buried the ashes of his daughter Antulla and has sanctified her name which you read here; he himself would more deservedly be read.

    It would have been just for the father to have gone to the Stygian shades: But since that was not permitted, let him live, so that he may honor her bones. Epigram In this epigram, Martial draws attention to the topographical setting, the gardens next to the property of the addressee Faustinus, outside Rome implied by countryside, rus, in line 2.

    The sombre tone is a contrast to the social backand-forth of the preceding two epigrams. The tone changes radically once again with the following epigram, 1. Quaedam me cupit, invide, Procille! A certain girl desires me be jealous, Procillus! But I want a certain girl who is darker than night, than an ant, pitch, grackle, cricket.

    You were just now thinking of hanging yourself: Epigram The speaker s formally balanced descriptions of two women provoke in the addressee, alternately, envy as expressed through a desire to hang himself, and Schadenfreude, expressed through a desire to keep living.

    Hoc nemus aeterno cinerum sacravit honori Faenius et culti iugera pauca soli. Faenius has consecrated this grove and these few acres of tilled soil for the everlasting honor of ashes. Antulla, snatched too soon from her own people, is covered by this sepulchre, in this each of Antulla s parents will be mingled.

    If someone desires this little field, I warn you, don t let him hope: Epigram Like the first epigram in the Antulla pair, this commemorates Antulla, her tomb garden, and her father s grief. In addition, this epigram s speaker makes an explicit claim to protect the integrity of Antulla s tomb Despite the change in tone from the preceding skoptic epigram, the present sepulchral epigram nevertheless continues the theme of covetousness and envy, but here it is the desire of a hypothetical third party for the little field agellum, 5 that hosts Antulla s tomb; and the speaker s motives in drawing attention to the envy of others are noble rather than petty as in Pettiness returns in the following epigram 1.

    Occurris quotiens, Luperce, nobis, vis mittam puerum subinde dicis, cui tradas epigrammaton libellum, lectum quem tibi protinus remittam? Henriksén, Martial s Modes of Mourning. Sepulchral Epitaphs in the Epigrams. Van Dam and J. Leiden and Boston ,. Argi nempe soles subire Letum: Every time you run into me, Lupercus, you immediately say, I want to send you a boy you can give your little book of epigrams to, which I ll return as soon as I ve read it.

    It s not worth troubling your boy with, Lupercus. It s a long way, if he wants to go to Pear Street, and I live up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that.

    What you want you can find closer to home. You must go by the Argiletum a lot: Look for me there. Ask for Atrectus 10 that s the name of the guy who runs the shop and from the first or second shelf he ll give you a Martial all smoothed with pumice and done up with purple for five denarii.

    Not a fair price, you say? You re a bright boy, Lupercus. Epigram The setting, in the middle of urban Rome and its crowded social negotiations, contrasts sharply with the rural, natural setting of the Antulla epigrams, and the language and imagery of motion through the city contrasts with the static monument of the Antulla epigrams. The sequence ends with this distich 1. I follow Shackleton Bailey s conjecture of nam for nec in line 13 op. For one to whom a hundred epigrams are not enough, nothing, Caedicianus, is enough of a bad thing.

    Epigram Formally, it responds to the first epigram in the sequence 1. I take Caedicianus here to be the target of the joke the cui in line 1 who wants more epigrams than can fit in a book. Since this epigram coincides with the end of the book, it means that the symmetrical sequence does too, and the joke is on Caedicianus since he cannot read any more.

    What unifies all of these epigrams is an interest, expressed in an astonishing variety of ways, in stages of life, proper and improper limits of life, and commemoration after death.

    This is obvious in the two epigrams on Antulla, the first of which expresses the sentiment that it would have been more fair aequum for Antulla s father Faenius Telesphorus to have preceded her in death , and the second of which expands on this topos, common in sepulchral inscriptions on children who die before marriage, by saying that Antulla was taken away too soon from her family cito,.

    Stages of life show up elsewhere in the sequence. Martial s youthful poetry, rather than meeting a deserved mors immatura, is, instead, given undeserved life by Valerianus, someone who does not allow my nuggets to perish per quem perire non licet meis nugis,. Martial s poetic oeuvre is therefore described in terms of stages of his own life iuvenis et puer quondam,. Epigram uses language of the stages of life and death obliquely, when the character Lupercus says that he ll send a boy puerum, 2 referring to status, not age.

    Martial uses the folk etymology of his bookseller s address, Argiletum, or, when subjected to tmesis, the death of Argus Argi On the theme of mors immatura, see A. The reading death of Argus suggests that Martial s epigrams, like the stories that Mercury told Argus to put him to sleep, are boring and go on for too long. To appreciate the Antulla sub-sequence I take the metaphor of reader as traveler, prompted by the two instances of a monument that a reader figuratively walks by 1.

    The metaphor of text as journey in Greek and Roman poetry has been well studied by Regina Höschele in a recent article for passages that explicitly invite the comparison by using imagery of traveling, paths, or topographical elements. The poems themselves refer to a monument that is itself set up in a private garden vicinos The sepulchral content of these two epigrams spills out beyond the particulars of the burial monument represented, and so the arrangement of these two epigrams within Book 1 offers the reader the experi- 13 I owe this point to William Fitzgerald.

    Ovid, Met and Since epigram can be read as a skoptic epigram, it is natural to take Priscus as a fictional character as does M. However, I would like to raise the possibility in passing that the Priscus in is, in fact, a historical friend of Martial and the same Priscus addressed in In that case, we should read epigram not as skoptic but as an epigram warmly celebrating the amicitia between Martial and Priscus that has moved from a formal patronage relationship to one based on affective ties, and Martial exploits the coincidence of Priscus cognomen by placing it in the context of the present sequence.

    The other use of the word priscus in Book 1 is as a common adjective in an epigram on Martial s old friend Decianus quales prisca fides famaque novit anus,. Höschele, The Traveling Reader: Journeys through Ancient Epigram Books. Transactions of the American Philological Association To create a sense of place, these epitaphic epigrams use deictic markers hos, hoc, highlighted by contrast with the c- and qu- sounds that open the other epigrams in the sequence not just as a literary device to represent the epitaph and its setting, but also as a continuation from actual stone epitaphs, which verbally draw the reader s attention to the monument and its plot of land cf.

    And, after reading epigram and its comparisons to natural life cicada, 4, etc. The two literary epitaphs 1. Appropriately enough in a book obsessed with plagiarism and misuse of someone else s poetry, the second of the two sepulchral epigrams ends with a wish, disguised as a statement, to protect the integrity of the monument and its topographical context: Antulla s monument, and the book in which it is contained, each will serve its master[s] in perpetuity perpetuo dominis serviet 16 A more straightforward sort of topographical mimesis found in Hellenistic epigram collections allows Martial to play as much as he does with juxtaposition and topography; Callimachus juxtaposes two straightforwardly epitaphic epigrams on himself and his father that should be read together R.

    Martial s innovation is not only to vary the sort of monument neighboring property, as in 1. Rimell, Martial s Rome: Empire and the Ideology of Epigram.

    The speaker gives the addressee, Lupercus, very specific topographical arguments against sending a boy to his own house and in favor of sending the slave to the bookseller Atrectus. The speaker points out that the route to the speaker s house is long and up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that longum est, 6; scalis The difficulty in walking faced by Lupercus slave in is presaged by Martial s use of a limping meter, choliambs, in epigram The natural setting suggested by epigrams and and the natural imagery suggested by epigram are continued in the speaker s description of his address, Pear Street ad Pirum,.

    In addition, Atrectus shop itself is described in terms that emphasize the movement of the book-browser through space: The bookshelves themselves are described in spatial terms Atrectus will take down a copy of Martial s book from the first or second shelf de primo The word that Martial uses here for shelf or cubbyhole, nidus or nest, not only echoes the use of birds as comparanda for the speaker s love interests in epigram 1.

    But despite the sexual boasting, epigram does not contain any primary obscenities. Its point is not sexual lascivia in and of itself as much as the humorous predictability of Procillus envy. It marks the middle, formally and thematically, of the sequence. It creates a space between the two epitaphic epigrams, as discussed above, in which personal and social interact; the speaker s erotic desires are both a symptom of and trigger for competition between two 19 On various types of plagiarism in Book 1, see the cycle on the fictional plagiarist Fidentinus 1.

    Appearance and Authorship, Rheinisches Museum The birds in epigram are the swan cycno, 2 and the grackle graculo, 5. On nidus to refer to a bookshelf, cf: The name Procillus has shown up once before in Book 1, as the fictional addressee of a sympotic epigram in which he is mocked for inappropriately, and ineptly, remembering a dinner invitation that was issued over drinks and therefore not to be taken seriously 1.

    The natural imagery of epigram places the epigram imagistically within the exterior, rural locus amoenus suggested by Antulla s garden tomb. However, the simple fact of the speaker s boasting to an addressee whose name was used earlier in a sympotic poem casts epigram as a speech act suitable to the urban, interior occasion of a convivium. Procillus relationship to death and life represents petty versions of themes that recur in this sequence: The epigram sets up Procillus as an ironic hero in the context of this sequence for hypothetically having control over the ability to end or continue his own life, for reasons that have to do with his emotional reaction to the content of the speaker s boasting.

    We can take Procillus reaction as a general figure for readers reception of a book of poetry: Procillus chooses to stop or continue based on the feelings or opinions that the speaker s utterances produce in him, and readers can stop or continue reading based on how they feel about the epigrams that they are reading.

    Procillus therefore represents the reader of a book of epigrams, who can continue reading or put the book aside as suits his tastes. Such a reader is the fictional Caedicianus in the final epigram of the sequence and of the book 1. Caedicianus threatens the integrity of Book 1 not by plagiarism or adulteration but by resisting closure.

    As a monument, the tomb or book, as emblematized by the mock-epitaph 1. The Antulla epigrams illustrate the fundamental association of epitaphs proper with naming. In the first epigram of the pair, Faenius Telesphorus has sanctified the name of his daughter nomenque sacravit,. In the second epigram, although Two of the non-sepulchral epigrams make a point of naming characters, too. In the speaker makes a point of naming his bookseller: Linguistically speaking, the historical etymology of nomen is from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning name that is cognate with, for example, Greek.

    The first of the Antulla epigrams implies as it has to that Antulla is worthy of having her name read, and ironically compounds the pathos of her death by saying that her father, as a member of the older generation, would more deservedly be read dignior ipse legi,: The three epigrams on Martial s own poetry also deal with the question of whether Martial himself, as represented by his book of epigrams, is dignus legi.

    The punch line of epigram is a self-deprecatory joke by the speaker pretending to agree that the bookseller s asking price is Not a fair price literally, You re not worth that much, Tanti non es,. In a similar vein, the following epigram, 1. Epigram uses language of time and leisure rather than money bonas This last epigram the earliest in sequence of the three discussed here introduces the theme of dignus legi, applied to literary worth, but hints, too, at its use as an explicitly epitaphic theme in the Antulla epigrams, by the figurative use of the verb perire in the last line: Pollius does not allow Martial s poetic trifles to perish.

    Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine. Paris , si bene te novi if I know you well, ; quas nec ipse iam novi which I myself no longer recognize, ; si novi bene te if I know you well,. In Atrectus bookshop, the poets labels or tituli that mark the books available inside for purchase are displayed on the doorposts for advertising purposes. The speaker suggests to Lupercus that he may read all the way through the labels thus displayed perlegas, In the context of the sepulchral epigrams with which epigram is juxtaposed, the image of skimming through names displayed publicly suggests the activity of a passer-by perusing the names on tombstones lining one of the many roads leading out of Rome.

    The verb perire is almost never found without some association with literal or figurative death; synchronically, in the Latin usage of Martial s day, the sense of the end predominates.

    But in the context of the end of Book 1, which suggests the path the reader takes past Antulla s tomb and up to Pear Street and along the Argiletum in Rome, Martial revivifies the etymological sense of perire, to go all the way through, emphasizing the journey rather than the destination, when he mocks Caedicianus in epigram for wanting to read his book too much all the way through, overshooting the end.

    Verbal cues, converging in epigram 1. Variations of the word novi I know [you] tie together 1. The theme and vocabulary of invidia, jealousy, is picked up in the context of vocative addresses in both and Forms of vivere, to live, ironically tie together and All three echoed words, thematically significant, are phonetically connected with the repetition of the syllable vi novi, invide, vivat.

    These thematically significant verbal cues, in combination with the commemorative, epitaph-like function of Book 1, moreover, explain why epigram is, in fact, a thematically appropriate opening epigram for the sevenepigram closing sequence. Here for the sake of argument I assume that the Priscus of is a historical amicus rather than just a fictional target of skoptic epigram. On the surface, epigram is about the lower-status speaker taking liberties with his lord and master dominum regemque, 1 by abandoning the 23 if However, Martial, as poet, is able to grant Priscus whether friend or patron true commemoration by using his proper name, Priscus, instead of a generic honorific, and denies ephemeral decus in favor of a more lasting form of recognition that deems him dignus legi in this book of epigrams.

    Its erotic boasting provides a point of comic relief between the two sepulchral epigrams and serves as a formal pivot between the two halves of the sequence. Epigram also serves an important thematic function. The addressee Procillus fantasizes about having control over the boundary between life and death. But the control does not truly belong to Procillus, but rather to the speaker, whose own actions provoke Procillus to want to hang himself out of envy or continue living out of Schadenfreude.

    In the context of Book 1 we may see the speaker of as a figure for the poet, and Procillus as a figure for the reader, in that the relationship between the two of them plays out a tension between forward momentum and coming to a stop, the tension between finishing with one epigram or going on to read more. The final seven epigrams of Book 1, therefore, form a much-needed closural sequence. On the one hand, this closural sequence, through explicit comment in the joke addressed to Caedicianus and the seemingly arbitrary arrangement and number of the epigrams, acknowledges the unboundedness of a book of epigrams.

    On the other hand, this seven-epigram sequence also prepares the reader for closure, and takes a set of epigrams on apparently disparate topics and arranges them thematically and formally to create an end for the book of epigrams.

    By bringing the book of epigrams to an end it marks the integrity of the book of epigrams here is the boundary, Martial implies, despite Caedicianus best efforts. The closural sequence marks the collection as a book of epigrams, rather than an arbitrary aggregation of discrete units. This closure causes the entire book of epigrams itself, because of its subtle formal integrity, to serve as a monument in its own right. Martial, like Antulla or Priscus, is dignus legi, worthy of being read, in a text that both monumentalizes him for posterity and places him and his reader amidst the life of city and country.

    More than 79 cases of children born with congenital defects are known from Greek and Roman literature. Although it is extremely difficult if not impossible to identify a single potential cause for it, attempts at explanation are already found in ancient writers.

    With the help of modern teratological science many teratogenous causes can partly be identified. Some of the most probable factors among these were the same as today: Congenital disorder, malformation, lead poisoning, teratogens, teratogenous factors.

    Introduction Congenital defects are and were looked at as something extraordinary during history. Major abnormalities are apparent and they occur frequently enough cca. At first glance the topic of congenital deformities belongs exclusively to the science of medicine, however a deeper investigation of the related statistics and a root cause analysis indicate the socio-cultural and economic background as principal factors, as well.

    This way, maybe surprisingly, a scientific investigation of exotic and somewhat marginal topics, like the analysis of congenital diseases in the ancient world reveals the underlying complex system of interactions between human beings and nature, the complex influence of culture, habits and economy.

    Newborns suffering of congenital abnormalities were treated in ancient times as monsters, something out of the range of normal and acceptable human life better to be kept secret.

    Deformed newborns were looked at more as strange animals, like human beings; and they were granted with no or little survival chance in order to eliminate the shame on the family. More than 79 such descriptions are known today completely or to some extent, however even the modern science is unable to produce an approximate estimation on the total numbers due to the lack of exact data by Cassius Dio. Medical background The origins of congenital defects were largely unknown until today, and their causes remain frequently unidentified.

    Such defects originate in disorders during the process of ontogenesis, the process of development leading from the fertilized oocyte to a mature organism. Despite the fact that modern medicine identified a huge variety of potential causes of congenital defects, it is extremely difficult if not impossible to diagnose exactly the origin of congenital deformities in an actual case, because all malformations are in a sense multifactoral and also because the four main factors the dosage of the teratogen, the developmental phase, the genotype of the mother and the foetus and the environmental factors cause different problems in various stages of the pregnancy and they can also influence each other s effect.

    The word teratology is a derivative of the ancient Greek word of teras monster , used already that time in the context of medicine to refer to a grossly malformed foetus or newborn. The pathogenic factors constituting the potential roots of deformities can be grouped into three main categories.

    The first part of these cases having genetic origins i. The most widely known representative of this category is Down-syndrome. The third category consists of teratogenous causes, like the illnesses of the mother, different chemicals, drugs, environmental impacts and nutritional defi- 2 For a summary of all cases mentioned by e.

    Allély, Les enfants malformés et considérés comme prodigia à Rome et en Italie sous la République. Revue des Études Anciennes R. Assumptions for the reconstruction If we look at the phenomenon of congenital diseases from the point of view of biology, all potential human factors vanish behind the statistics as a simple statistical entry.

    However, a deeper analysis of the human factors allows the discovery of the interdependencies between the social and biological influences affecting the individuals.

    Genetic and chromosome defects It can be assumed that the relative frequency of the occurrence of cases related to genetic and chromosome defects were probably of the same frequency in ancient times or due to the lack of medical screening slightly higher as nowadays, since they are predominantly phenomena related to human biology.

    Modern statistics on the geographical distribution of genetic and chromosome defects indicate no major deviances despite huge differences in the level of economy, culture and habits, with the exception of some singular locations having extreme environmental risks like areas near to nuclear or chemical catastrophes in modern times or risks originating in specific religion or culture rules like preference of marriage between relatives.

    This independence justifies the assumption, that this category is independent of the social factors, and accordingly thus modern time statistics approximate properly that of the ancient world.

    Teratogenous factors However, the estimation of change of teratogenous factors over time is an extremely difficult problem. At first glance, there are several potentially important, but contradictory factors. On the one hand, an embryo in ancient times 4 R. Garland, The eye of the beholder: Moreover, these categories cannot be analysed per se in isolation, as humans adapt their behaviour, thus implicitly their risk exposure to their environments. Thus, the category of teratogenous factors is a historical one, showing a strong dependence on the social surroundings.

    Information sources The investigation of the potential causes of congenital defects in the ancient era can rely on two fundamental information sources: In modern times, many questions are still open and are subject of heavy scientific discussions despite the discovery of numerous new facts and findings.

    At the same time many misinterpretations about them circulate in the public arena. He was well acquainted with the different kinds of malformation and he described frequently phenomena related to teratology in detail, primarily in the fourth book of his work entitled De generatione animalium. His primary scope 5 R. München , , of which I discuss more theories hereafter. Warkany, Teratology of the past. For, following what has been said, it remains to give the reason for such monsters.

    If the movements imparted by the semen are resolved and the material contributed by the mother is not controlled by them, at last there remains the most general substratum, that is to say the animal. Then people say that the child has the head of a ram or a bull, and so on with other animals, as that a calf has the head of a child or a sheep that of an ox.

    All these monsters result from the causes stated above That, however, it is impossible for such a monstrosity to come into existence I mean one animal in another is shown by the great difference in the period of gestation between man, sheep, dog, and ox, it being impossible for each to be developed except in its proper time This is the description of some of the monsters talked about; others are such because certain parts of their form are multiplied so that they are born with many feet or many heads.

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    Herrmann, Chiron 17 upon the succession of Antiochus IV to the throne. Innanzitutto si evidenzia l appartenenza sociale dei pochi personaggi noti che appaiono di condizione non servile: The speaker points out that the route to the speaker s house is long and up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that longum est, 6; scalis

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    During the campaign, the king had received some help from the Jews 2Macc 3: It is said of Antiochos III s son and heir, Seleucus IV, that he furnished all ongoing expenses for the performance of sacrifices out of his own income 2Macc 3: Notwithstanding, king Seleucus IV also inherited the harsh terms of the Apamea treaty.

    The Seleucids had to pay Rome s war expenses, the sum of 15, talents. Five hundred talents were to be handed over immediately, an additional 2, talents paid after the agreement was ratified in Rome, and the remainder transferred to Rome in 12 yearly installments. According to Dov Gera the appointment of Olympiodoros seems to have been part of an 21 Bickerman , Fischer ; Gera , ; Schwartz ; Kennell ; Ego Gera , Elias Bickerman proved the authenticity of this royal decree Bickerman At this point, however, Dov Gera makes a mistake, applying the Seleucus IV s dossier from Maresha to the story of Heliodoros in 2Macc We should, however, emphasize that the exact date of the Heliodoros affair was not precisely defined in 2Macc.

    If we accept its basic historicity, it could have happened at any time during the twelve-year-long reign of Seleucus IV B. Let us now turn back to the Second Book of the Maccabees which refers to the aftermath of the Heliodorus affair as well. According to Jason of Cyrene supposedly the author of the 2Macc Helidoros was grateful to Onias III, the high priest, because of his miraculous healing, and marched back with his army to the king 2Macc 4: But Seleucus IV and Heliodoros himself did not abandon his project to take over the treasures of the Jerusalem Temple.

    They could not, because they had to pay the yearly installments to Rome. The story continues as follows: He will come back to you scourged, if he survives at all, because a divine power truly surrounds the place 2Macc 3: We do not know how many time passed since the Heliodoros affair.

    Could it be possible that Olympiodoros, the syntrophos, chamberlain and one of the First Friends of Seleucus IV was the secret enemy of the sovereign, who was sent instead of Heliodoros to Jerusalem? It is not an unlikely hypothesis, if we assume that the Heliodoros affair happened between B.

    In consequence of this, we do not need to assume as Dove Gera does that the Seleucid official who confronted the Jerusalem authorities was in fact Olympiodoros and not Heliodoros. Ma is of the same opinion. For it was Heliodoros who was blamed for the king s ultimately death, as can be learned from a later source Appian. The author of 2Maccabees seems to be aware of this Thus, in both rank and character, Heliodoros would have been a more suitable choice for the role of Seleucid official who overrules the objections of the righteous Onias III, but suffers the consequences at the hands of God s emissaries.

    Conspicuosly, the author of 2Macc does not present Seleucus IV as an evil king. This journey have taken place in the final days of the king, because Jason of Cyrene does not tell a single word about the decision of Seleucus IV, but suddenly refers to the king s death and succession of the throne when Seleucus passed away and Antiochus, called Epiphanes, succeeded to the throne, 2Macc 4: There is no mention of Heliodoros coup d état, murder or theodicy.

    We possess only one historical source which refers to the king s murder: Bengtson, Die Strategie in der hellenistischen Zeit: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staatsrecht, vols.

    Bickerman, La Charte séleucide de Jérusalem. Leiden , II ]. Bickerman, Institutions des Séléucides. Burstein, The Aftermath of the Peace of Apamea. Wörrle, Seleukos IV to Heliodoros. Ego, God s Justice: Fischer, Heliodor im Tempel zu Jerusalem: Gera, Judaea and Mediterranean Politics to B. Kennell, New Light on 2 Maccabees 4: Journal of Roman Studies 57 1 8. Schwartz, Divine Punishment in Second Maccabees: Vengeance, Abandonment or Loving Discipline?

    Festschrift für Hermann Lichtenberger zum In Horace s Epistle to Augustus the estimate of Terence may be less positive than is generally believed.

    This reinterpretation is based first on classical views of acoustic concinnity, then on etymological considerations. Terentius, Horatius, labor limae, homoeoptotic homoeoteleuton, callida iunctura The article on Terence in Enciclopedia Oraziana opens with the following sentence: Dal giudizio assai poco lusinghiero che H.

    Here Minarini understands ars as denoting labor limae. This epistle to the princeps himself repeatedly preaches the importance of labor limae. Part of this concern with labor limae is to ensure ne ultima syllaba prioris verbi eadem sit quae prima posterioris. Index librorum scriptorum inscriptionum. Enciclopedia Oraziana 1 The same view is taken by P. Rome , ad loc. The prescription is found already in Isocrates, Tech. Here the violation of the precept cannot be excused on prosodic grounds by the need for a pyrrhic sequence in the fifth biceps to assure a dactyl, since in this case the fifth foot is not at issue, but the fourth.

    The inelegance of -te Te- could moreover have been easily avoided by a grouping such as arte valere Terentius. Such purposive lack of polish can be shown to have been deployed elsewhere in Horace s oeuvre in order to underline his meaning. Further confirmation of this view would seem to be supplied by the other word which Horace devotes to his treatment of Terence: The very same sentence of Julius Victor as the one censuring such a collocation as -te Te- also issues the following prohibition: The second hemistich of the line at issue in the present note is the cause of some puzzlement to Brink, who comments: In particular the whole word arte is a virtual homophone of the second half of the foregoing noun -ate.

    The element te is accordingly found conspicuously at the beginning or end of three consecutive words: Latomus , The first of these inconcinnities entails a breach of the same precept at issue in the present -te Te-.

    Brink, Horace on Poetry: The Letters to Augustus and Florus. In particular this te frames the two words that deal with Terentian drama in the present epistle: Horace has accordingly succeeded in packing a lot of auditive inconcinnity into a mere three feet. No such inelegance marks the preceding ten lines that make up the rest of this survey of old Roman poetry. After the line that ends with Terentius arte Horace continues: Here the hos are the poets of the foregoing survey.

    These two verses that deal with them would appear to be marked by etymological word-play. The article on Etimologia in Enciclopedia Oraziana ends by observing that e. He wishes to show by acoustic means that the conventional view of Terence is wrong. Enciclopedia Oraziana 2 For recent attempts to identify Horatian etymologizing cf. Etymologizing in Epode 2, For etymologizing in the Horatian scholia cf.

    The Commentators on Horace. Brown University , Brink, op. All these commentators likewise miss the afore-mentioned inconcinnities. Artus is not an appropriate epithet to qualify theatrum: The fidelity of Terentian translation is notorious: The same wording is used in the immediately preceding line of the Ars Poetica , where Horace condemns this practice: The Epistle to Augustus is accordingly making the wry suggestion that Terence s theatrical art is not a virtue , but on the contrary narrow literality artum.

    It may be said in conclusion that here Horace s treatment of ars would seem to qualify as a good example of callida iunctura AP Cairns, Ancient Etymology and Tibullus: On the Classification of Etymologies and on Etymological Markers.

    Goetz, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum 7. Amsterdam , s. No further instance of the application of artus to theatrum is provided by the online Library of Latin Texts. Similarly theatro, with which arto agrees, is assigned the same emphatically final sedes as arte in the line directly above.

    La discussione dell erronea lezione di Oct. Il contesto tematico e stilistico Nella prospettiva di uno studio sistematico della tradizione manoscritta dell Octavia un passaggio fondamentale è costituito dai vv , che vanno preliminarmente collocati nel contesto della prima fra le due scene ; delle quali è protagonista Seneca 1. Si tratta di una sequenza monologica in cui il personaggio dapprima lamenta d essere stato innalzato dalla sorte ai fastigi del potere per poi rovinare gravius e sopportare la vista di tot metus , quindi rimpiange l esilio in Corsica, dove poteva dedicarsi agli studi e godere dello spettacolo offertogli dalla volta celeste , infine preconizza la catastrofe del genere umano e la palingenesi del mondo Il personaggio a questo punto inserisce un excursus sulla storia del cosmo, prospettata come ciclo tetrastico di generazioni che procedono fatalmente da una condizione di felicità edenica , collocata tenente regna Saturno poli e dunque coi tratti distintivi della bella età de l oro di tassiana 1 I vv costituiscono il punto di forza di quanti negano la paternità senecana dell Octavia ritenendo irrituale la presenza nel dramma antico di personaggi viventi e tanto più l autorappresentazione dell auctor Aug.

    Dei 2, 9, riassumendo e parafrasando Cic. Si tratta tuttavia di argomentazione non del tutto cogente, dato che siamo a conoscenza di almeno due drammi l Agen e la praetexta de itinere ad Lentulum ruotanti sulla contemporaneità e quindi su personaggi vivi e vegeti rispettivamente Alessandro Magno e Cornelio Balbo Minore che, tra l altro, le fonti Ath.

    L excursus fornisce quindi le coordinate generali di una teodicea che nel progresso materiale dell umanità, sollecitata a soddisfare i bisogni primari dalla 2 Vd. Peri, Ma il quarto dov è? Indagine sul topos delle bellezze femminili.

    Pisa , pp Ovvio il riferimento a Hes. Vernant, Il mito esiodeo delle razze. Tentativo di analisi strutturale. Studi di psicologia storica. Torino , pp , spec ; Arat sulla cui scia si pongono i traduttori latini dei Phaenomena, da Cicerone ad Avieno ; Ov. Sulla riduzione del mito ad opposizione binaria età aurea vs età ferrea vd. Pianezzola, Forma narrativa e funzione paradigmatica di un mito. L età dell oro latina. Modelli retorici e forma narrativa. Bologna , pp In genere, poeti e scrittori che trattano il mito delle aetates mundi strutturano il discorso secondo una linea diacronica che dall aurea aetas giunge alla ferrea, individuata di solito nel presente: Spesso in Virgilio questo motivo è collegato a finalità panegiristiche: Non sempre, comunque, il confronto si risolve in bilancio negativo per l età presente: Leopardi, La ginestra 51 di Vitr.

    Presentano questa chiave di lettura i versi relativi al tertium genus, nei quali il Seneca agens enumera le strategie caccia, pesca, domesticamento, agricoltura con le quali esso reperisce le risorse alimentari.

    La struttura sintattica e stilistica della sequenza consta di una protratta serie di cola paralleli pred. Altra vistosa caratteristica formale è il ricorso all enjambement, per cui la menzione di ciascuna ars non coincide con la misura del verso, ma si protende nell emistichio del verso successivo: Quando il Seneca personaggio delinea le caratteristiche del tertium genus, ricorre agli aggettivi sollers, sanctum, inquietum in funzione di predicativi retti da extitit, ciascuno dei quali accompagnato da un modificatore, complemento indiretto o avverbio, rispettivamente novas ad artes, tamen, mox.

    Ci riporta invece ad un contesto analogo a quello dell Octavia rievocazione dell aetas aurea in opposizione binaria al presente, prospettato più o meno esplicitamente come aetas ferrea Sen. Mela 1, 65 Phoenicen inlustravere Phoenices, sollers hominum genus et ad belli pacisque munia eximium: Il mondo antico, mentre accoglie senza riserve la caccia eroica della tradizione mitica ed epica 12, dal carattere agonistico e premilitare, che l uomo esercita inseguendo di corsa la preda 13, generalmente sottopone a censura culturale qualunque forma di caccia finalizzata all alimentazione o comunque praticata con l ausilio di reti o esche 14, che si configurano come vera e propria fraus.

    Questo è tanto più vero per l aucupium o uccellagione, che pure sotto il profilo economico doveva essere molto più significativa e diffusa presso i ceti meno abbienti, anche per il basso costo delle attrezzature richieste.

    Per il ricorso alla metafora della fraus e dell adescamento in contesti dedicati all aucupium, vd. Hugo de Sancto Victore, Didascalicon de studio legendi 2, 25 Venatio dividitur in ferinam, aucupium et piscaturam. Longo, Le regole della caccia nel mondo greco-romano. Aufidus 1 , p Vd. E ancora, la caccia è legittima quando obbedisce a scopi difensivi: Unica eccezione Cassiodoro, che riconosce sporadica cautela anche agli uccelli: Di ancor minore considerazione godeva, nel mondo antico, la pesca 16, priva com è delle valenze agonistiche della caccia, dal momento che i pesci sono per lo più inermi e la loro cattura è interamente basata sul ricorso ad esche e reti, in una parola sull uso di insidiae: Non sfuggirà, a questo punto, che l autore dell Octavia, operando un inversione rispetto alla graduatoria consueta, colloca l uccellagione al massimo grado della fraus, ribaltamento cui potrebbe non essere estranea la promozione della pesca operata dagli Halieutica, ovidiani o pseudoovidiani che siano Non di rado, l aucupium viene sfruttato nelle similitudini come figurante dell adescamento per eccellenza: La Penna, La disputa sul primato della caccia o della pesca nell antichità, Philologus , p Vd.

    In secondo luogo ai vv colpisce nell economia generale dell excursus lo scarsissimo rilievo dato dall autore della praetexta alla seconda suboles, ché ad essa è riservato appena un complemento predicativo, minus mitis Oct: Zwierlein, Kritischer Kommentar zu den Tragödien Senecas.

    A play attributed to Seneca. Cambridge New York , pp , n. Delisle, Cabinet des manuscrits I-II. Paris , pp ; A. Studia Copernicana 1 , pp. Giunto nelle mani del teologo Gérard d'abbeville P. Glorieux, Bibliothèques de Maîtres parisiens: Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 36 , pp ; P.

    La vie de Gérard d Abbeville. Archives d histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge 31 , pp , è tra i testi della biblioteca di Amiens che giunsero alla Sorbona per suo tramite R. Siglato convenzionalmente P, il manoscritto appartiene alla famiglia del ramo A della tradizione. Questa famiglia, geograficamente riconducibile all area compresa tra la Francia del Nord e le Fiandre, include oltre a P, un secondo Parisinus Latinus risalente all inizio del XV sec.

    Leo, De Senecae tragoediis observationes criticae. In base a siffatta scelta la congiunzione disgiuntiva vel introdurrebbe l introduzione di un metodo alternativo dell aucupium decipere crate oppure tenere laqueo , parallelamente al v. Lugduni Batavorum , p. Busche, Zu Octavia praet. Paris segnala nel testo una lacuna dopo crate e in apparato cita la proposta di Leo, op. Incertorum auctorum Hercules Otaeus, Octavia. Oxford crate vel tereti vagas predicativo dell oggetto implicito volucres, che fu già del Siegmund.

    Peiper, Praefationis in Sen. Peiperi subsidiis instructus denuo edenda curavit. Siegmund, Zur Textkritik der Tragödie Octavia. Leipzig Wien , in base a Sen. Bonn e condivisa in apparato da Düring, sulla scia di Leo 25, ipotizza che il sostantivo crate sia stato originariamente vergato nel subarchetipo A o in suo apografo come variante di rete nello spazio interlineare corrispondente all attuale verso Notes on the text of Seneca s tragedies.

    Boyle, Octavia attributed to Seneca. Oxford , integrazione che ha goduto e gode di maggior fortuna. Bologna , ad loc. Altrettanto dicasi per Ferri, op. Aeneas costas et cratis pectoris ensem o designare maforicamente tutto quanto risulti inestricabile Oros.

    D altronde anche Ferri esclude che cratis possa essere connesso con la caccia: Talvolta reti di tal fatta venivano stese sulle fronde degli alberi con l aiuto di canne aucupatoriae. A parer nostro, tuttavia, prima ancora di affrontare lo spinoso problema del v. In senso proprio calamus designa una pianta palustre dagli innumerevoli usi e campi d applicazione: In senso traslato calamus designa spesso per metonimia oggetti che da esso rarisque textu veluti nassis in alto iactis inoltre 21, ; 32, , per cui cfr.

    Ecce etiam per antemnam pelagiae consederant volucres, quas textis harundinibus peritus artifex tetigit; illae viscatis inligatae viminibus deferebantur ad manus. Tollebat plumas aura volitantes, pinnasque per maria inanis spuma torquebat: Longo, La caccia al pesce.

    Lévêque, , pp Cfr. Aucupium fit laqueis, pedicis, retibus, arcu, visco, hamo. Per questa sua qualità il calamus è il materiale ideale per le frecce: In ogni caso la iunctura non è mai usata né per la canna da pesca né per la canna aucupatoria.

    Calamus vero alius totus concavus, quem vocant syringian, utilissimus fistulis, quoniam nihil est ei cartilaginis atque carnis. Orchomenio et nodi continuo foramine pervii, quem auleticon vocant. Hic tibiis formata da due canne utilior, fistulis ille flauto di Pan, costituito da una serie di canne di sposte in ordine di lunghezza. Il fatto che syringia e auleticon siano cavi, privi di sostanza cartilaginosa e graciles come poi viene precisato a , paragrafo interamente dedicato alle canne di E allora altamente probabile che calamo levi anche in Oct.

    Già abbiamo manifestato le nostre perplessità dinanzi all ipotesi che crate del v. Dei termini che, in contesti dedicati all aucupium, ricorrono come sinonimi di calamus, ovvero harundo, canna, ames, i primi due sono sicuramente troppo comuni per richiedere una glossa; d uso estremamente raro risulta invece ames, per cui cfr.

    E probabile che ad un significato del genere avesse pensato già N. Troviamo il verso oraziano citato in un anonimo trattato di metrica, i Fragmenta Sangallensia ad res metricas pertinentia, De iambico trimetro e cod. Quanto all aut levi che chiude il verso, occorre tenere presente che il tradito dei codici non è unanime, presentando in alternativa l abbreviazione di ante 42, che paleograficamente poco si distingue dalla nota tachigrafica per aut: Thuaneus sigla B , uno dei due codici che trasmettono gli Halieutica di Ovidio l altro è il Vindobonensis noto come A: XII-XIII ipotizza attendibilmente che l apografo comune di B ed A fosse scritto in una corsiva precarolina caratterizzata dalla -a- a forma di cc accostate, quale possiamo rintracciare nella minuscola insulare, nella cosiddetta merovingica di Luxeuil e di Corbie, oltre che nella beneventana.

    Analogo errore presenta il Thuaneus, che contiene ai ff un miniflorilegio delle tragedie senecane secondo la redazione E per l esattezza Tro , Med , Oed e e che per Tro. Zwierlein, Prolegomena zu einer kritischen Ausgabe der Tragödien Senecas. Il che apre la possibilità che anche l Octavia possa essere stata presente nella tradizione E in una fase precedente alla composizione dell Etruscus o del suo antigrafo.

    L attendibilità di tale proposta, coerente anche con l imitatio oraziana affiorante qua e là nel testo dell Octavia 46, trova ulteriori riscontri sotto il profilo metrico: Avremmo pertanto una struttura di tal fatta: Un possibile integrazione è l infinito fallere 49, con desinenza poco 45 Per la poesia mediolatina cfr.

    Johannis de Garlandia, Epithal. Per un computo statistico delle occorrenze di dattili in terza sede su un totale dei trimetri giambici presenti nel corpus delle tragedie senecane vd. O Sufficientemente attestata la compresenza di fallere e decipere nel medesimo contesto: Il quadro sin qui delineato risulta poi coerente con la struttura sintattica e stilistica dell intero passaggio, che ha i suoi tratti caratteristici: In funzione simbolica, Hil.

    Sic quoque et anima nostra caveat ad haec mundana descendere. Laqueus in auro, viscum est in argento, nexus in praedio, clavus in amore. Dum aurum petimus, strangulamur: Quin etiam mulieris decus, dum temptatur, adstringit. The final seven epigrams of Martial s Book 1 form a subtle but important closural sequence epigrams inclusive. Despite their great variatio of topics, the seven epigrams are linked through concerns about the boundary between life and death, the integrity of a monument, and the theme of dignus legi, or what makes someone worthy of being read.

    Through a series of close readings, this article argues for the coherence of this sequence on formal, thematic, and verbal grounds. The sequence is centered on a pair of epigrams on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young girl named Antulla 1. The function of this closural sequence is both formal, to bring closure to a disparate collection of epigrams, and thematic, to reprise themes from the mock-epitaph with which Martial opens book 1 1.

    Martial, epigram, closure, fama, poetry book, Antulla, tomb, epitaph, naming. A book of epigrams, especially one with a variatio of subject matter as dramatic as that of Book 1 of Martial, can appear to be of arbitrary length and arrangement. The author or editor of a given epigram book uses variatio of tone, theme, et cetera to prevent boredom over the course of a collection of a hundred or more epigrams, and techniques of unification such as overarching subject matter and self-referential opening and closing sequences to give the book coherence if not architecture.

    The editors and authors of Hellenistic epigram collections, as observed by Kathryn Gutzwiller, use a single topic to unify a given book. Martial uses the very variatio that could work against artistic unity and, instead, exploits this variatio to create finely crafted substructures that bring closure, and thereby formal coherence, to his Book 1. Hellenistic Epigrams in Context.

    All flaws that remain are my own. These epigrams form a carefully crafted symmetrical arrangement that despite the apparent heterogeneity of theme in fact is, itself, internally coherent both formally and thematically. I disagree, therefore, with readers such as Johannes Scherf who argue that the closural sequences of Martial s books are weniger kohärent than the opening sequences; I maintain that the closural sequence of Book 1, at least, is subtle but, upon close inspection, very coherent.

    In addition, these epigrams, collectively, play with the tension between a linear journey of indeterminate length and the fixed, integral monuments, and between the busy, bustling, quotidian city and the tranquil, timeless countryside. The placement of this symmetrical sequence at the very end of Book 1 thematizes the end of the book: All of these thematic and formal characteristics, not consistent but coherent, combine to highlight the theme of dignus legi, the question of what makes someone the patron, the deceased person, or the poet himself worthy of being read.

    The symmetry of the seven-epigram closural sequence depends upon a closely matched pair of poignant sepulchral epigrams. These two epigrams, both on the kepotaphion or tomb-garden of a young, unmarried woman named Antulla, form a strong diptych with one another, 4 each being three couplets in length. They frame the middle epigram of the symmetrical sequence 1. The centrality of the two tombstone epigrams as third and fifth in the seven-epigram sequence invites us to ask what this sequence of epigrams does for us thematically and formally.

    Scherf, Untersuchungen zur Buchgestaltung Martials. Munich and Leipzig , For a theoretically sophisticated treatment of Martial s book as monument, see pages in L.

    Journal of Roman Studies 91 O. Gli epigrammi funerari per Erotion in Marziale. Materiali e discussioni per l analisi dei testi classici 48 , On the Antulla pair as kepotaphion and its literary context, see A. Manzo, La fonte greca degli epigrami sepolcrali di Marziale. Milan , , esp. Hic est quem legis ille, quem requiris toto notus in orbe Martialis argutis epigrammaton libellis. Here he is, the one whom you read, the one whom you ask for, Martial, known throughout the entire world for his witty little books of epigrams.

    Dedicated reader, the recognition which you have given him while he is alive and able to know it few poets have even after the grave. The themes that Martial first starts to play with in epigram 1. The World of the Epigram. Chicago , See M.

    Valerii Martialis Epigrammaton liber primus. Introduzione, testo, apparato critico e commento. The sequence consists of three symmetrical, concentric pairs, which I shall describe below, emanating from a central epigram as follows: The outermost ring of the sequence, epigrams and or the first and seventh in the sequence, consists of two poems, each one couplet in length, that dramatize conversations and social posturing between two men, one 1.

    Of these seven epigrams, two substructures stand out: However, epigrams and 1. The sequence opens thus: Cum te non nossem, dominum 8 regemque vocabam: When I didn t know you, I called you lord and king: Epigram The sequence starts with a one-couplet epigram on the conventions of naming in the context of patronage.

    The speaker makes a play on the name of his patron initially addressed by the honorifics dominus and rex , turning a cognomen into an impudent claim to long-standing familiarity with the higher-status addressee. The following epigram, 1. Quaecumque lusi iuvenis et puer quondam apinasque nostras, quas nec ipse iam novi, male collocare si bonas voles horas et invidebis otio tuo, lector, a Valeriano Pollio petes Quinto, per quem perire non licet meis nugis.

    Whatever I played at as a youth once, and as a boy, and our trifles, which I myself no longer recognize, if you want to pass your good hours badly and if you bear ill-will toward your free time, reader, seek them from Quintus Pollius Valerianus, who does not allow my nuggets to perish. Epigram Here, Quintus Valerianus Pollius preserves and makes available the poet s juvenilia which the speaker-poet rhetorically disparages, either as a show of not wanting his mature work to be diluted by inferior poetry, or as an oblique way of drawing attention to the loyalty that his verse inspires.

    Shackleton Bailey, Martialis Epigrammata. Hos tibi vicinos, Faustine, Telesphorus hortos Faenius et breve rus udaque prata tenet. Faenius Telesphorus holds these gardens next to you, Faustinus, and this little estate and moist meadows. Here he has buried the ashes of his daughter Antulla and has sanctified her name which you read here; he himself would more deservedly be read.

    It would have been just for the father to have gone to the Stygian shades: But since that was not permitted, let him live, so that he may honor her bones. Epigram In this epigram, Martial draws attention to the topographical setting, the gardens next to the property of the addressee Faustinus, outside Rome implied by countryside, rus, in line 2.

    The sombre tone is a contrast to the social backand-forth of the preceding two epigrams. The tone changes radically once again with the following epigram, 1. Quaedam me cupit, invide, Procille! A certain girl desires me be jealous, Procillus! But I want a certain girl who is darker than night, than an ant, pitch, grackle, cricket. You were just now thinking of hanging yourself: Epigram The speaker s formally balanced descriptions of two women provoke in the addressee, alternately, envy as expressed through a desire to hang himself, and Schadenfreude, expressed through a desire to keep living.

    Hoc nemus aeterno cinerum sacravit honori Faenius et culti iugera pauca soli. Faenius has consecrated this grove and these few acres of tilled soil for the everlasting honor of ashes. Antulla, snatched too soon from her own people, is covered by this sepulchre, in this each of Antulla s parents will be mingled.

    If someone desires this little field, I warn you, don t let him hope: Epigram Like the first epigram in the Antulla pair, this commemorates Antulla, her tomb garden, and her father s grief. In addition, this epigram s speaker makes an explicit claim to protect the integrity of Antulla s tomb Despite the change in tone from the preceding skoptic epigram, the present sepulchral epigram nevertheless continues the theme of covetousness and envy, but here it is the desire of a hypothetical third party for the little field agellum, 5 that hosts Antulla s tomb; and the speaker s motives in drawing attention to the envy of others are noble rather than petty as in Pettiness returns in the following epigram 1.

    Occurris quotiens, Luperce, nobis, vis mittam puerum subinde dicis, cui tradas epigrammaton libellum, lectum quem tibi protinus remittam? Henriksén, Martial s Modes of Mourning. Sepulchral Epitaphs in the Epigrams. Van Dam and J. Leiden and Boston ,. Argi nempe soles subire Letum: Every time you run into me, Lupercus, you immediately say, I want to send you a boy you can give your little book of epigrams to, which I ll return as soon as I ve read it.

    It s not worth troubling your boy with, Lupercus. It s a long way, if he wants to go to Pear Street, and I live up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that. What you want you can find closer to home. You must go by the Argiletum a lot: Look for me there. Ask for Atrectus 10 that s the name of the guy who runs the shop and from the first or second shelf he ll give you a Martial all smoothed with pumice and done up with purple for five denarii.

    Not a fair price, you say? You re a bright boy, Lupercus. Epigram The setting, in the middle of urban Rome and its crowded social negotiations, contrasts sharply with the rural, natural setting of the Antulla epigrams, and the language and imagery of motion through the city contrasts with the static monument of the Antulla epigrams.

    The sequence ends with this distich 1. I follow Shackleton Bailey s conjecture of nam for nec in line 13 op. For one to whom a hundred epigrams are not enough, nothing, Caedicianus, is enough of a bad thing.

    Epigram Formally, it responds to the first epigram in the sequence 1. I take Caedicianus here to be the target of the joke the cui in line 1 who wants more epigrams than can fit in a book. Since this epigram coincides with the end of the book, it means that the symmetrical sequence does too, and the joke is on Caedicianus since he cannot read any more.

    What unifies all of these epigrams is an interest, expressed in an astonishing variety of ways, in stages of life, proper and improper limits of life, and commemoration after death. This is obvious in the two epigrams on Antulla, the first of which expresses the sentiment that it would have been more fair aequum for Antulla s father Faenius Telesphorus to have preceded her in death , and the second of which expands on this topos, common in sepulchral inscriptions on children who die before marriage, by saying that Antulla was taken away too soon from her family cito,.

    Stages of life show up elsewhere in the sequence. Martial s youthful poetry, rather than meeting a deserved mors immatura, is, instead, given undeserved life by Valerianus, someone who does not allow my nuggets to perish per quem perire non licet meis nugis,. Martial s poetic oeuvre is therefore described in terms of stages of his own life iuvenis et puer quondam,. Epigram uses language of the stages of life and death obliquely, when the character Lupercus says that he ll send a boy puerum, 2 referring to status, not age.

    Martial uses the folk etymology of his bookseller s address, Argiletum, or, when subjected to tmesis, the death of Argus Argi On the theme of mors immatura, see A. The reading death of Argus suggests that Martial s epigrams, like the stories that Mercury told Argus to put him to sleep, are boring and go on for too long.

    To appreciate the Antulla sub-sequence I take the metaphor of reader as traveler, prompted by the two instances of a monument that a reader figuratively walks by 1. The metaphor of text as journey in Greek and Roman poetry has been well studied by Regina Höschele in a recent article for passages that explicitly invite the comparison by using imagery of traveling, paths, or topographical elements.

    The poems themselves refer to a monument that is itself set up in a private garden vicinos The sepulchral content of these two epigrams spills out beyond the particulars of the burial monument represented, and so the arrangement of these two epigrams within Book 1 offers the reader the experi- 13 I owe this point to William Fitzgerald.

    Ovid, Met and Since epigram can be read as a skoptic epigram, it is natural to take Priscus as a fictional character as does M. However, I would like to raise the possibility in passing that the Priscus in is, in fact, a historical friend of Martial and the same Priscus addressed in In that case, we should read epigram not as skoptic but as an epigram warmly celebrating the amicitia between Martial and Priscus that has moved from a formal patronage relationship to one based on affective ties, and Martial exploits the coincidence of Priscus cognomen by placing it in the context of the present sequence.

    The other use of the word priscus in Book 1 is as a common adjective in an epigram on Martial s old friend Decianus quales prisca fides famaque novit anus,. Höschele, The Traveling Reader: Journeys through Ancient Epigram Books. Transactions of the American Philological Association To create a sense of place, these epitaphic epigrams use deictic markers hos, hoc, highlighted by contrast with the c- and qu- sounds that open the other epigrams in the sequence not just as a literary device to represent the epitaph and its setting, but also as a continuation from actual stone epitaphs, which verbally draw the reader s attention to the monument and its plot of land cf.

    And, after reading epigram and its comparisons to natural life cicada, 4, etc. The two literary epitaphs 1. Appropriately enough in a book obsessed with plagiarism and misuse of someone else s poetry, the second of the two sepulchral epigrams ends with a wish, disguised as a statement, to protect the integrity of the monument and its topographical context: Antulla s monument, and the book in which it is contained, each will serve its master[s] in perpetuity perpetuo dominis serviet 16 A more straightforward sort of topographical mimesis found in Hellenistic epigram collections allows Martial to play as much as he does with juxtaposition and topography; Callimachus juxtaposes two straightforwardly epitaphic epigrams on himself and his father that should be read together R.

    Martial s innovation is not only to vary the sort of monument neighboring property, as in 1. Rimell, Martial s Rome: Empire and the Ideology of Epigram. The speaker gives the addressee, Lupercus, very specific topographical arguments against sending a boy to his own house and in favor of sending the slave to the bookseller Atrectus. The speaker points out that the route to the speaker s house is long and up three flights of stairs, and long ones at that longum est, 6; scalis The difficulty in walking faced by Lupercus slave in is presaged by Martial s use of a limping meter, choliambs, in epigram The natural setting suggested by epigrams and and the natural imagery suggested by epigram are continued in the speaker s description of his address, Pear Street ad Pirum,.

    In addition, Atrectus shop itself is described in terms that emphasize the movement of the book-browser through space: The bookshelves themselves are described in spatial terms Atrectus will take down a copy of Martial s book from the first or second shelf de primo The word that Martial uses here for shelf or cubbyhole, nidus or nest, not only echoes the use of birds as comparanda for the speaker s love interests in epigram 1. But despite the sexual boasting, epigram does not contain any primary obscenities.

    Its point is not sexual lascivia in and of itself as much as the humorous predictability of Procillus envy. It marks the middle, formally and thematically, of the sequence.

    It creates a space between the two epitaphic epigrams, as discussed above, in which personal and social interact; the speaker s erotic desires are both a symptom of and trigger for competition between two 19 On various types of plagiarism in Book 1, see the cycle on the fictional plagiarist Fidentinus 1.

    Appearance and Authorship, Rheinisches Museum The birds in epigram are the swan cycno, 2 and the grackle graculo, 5. On nidus to refer to a bookshelf, cf: The name Procillus has shown up once before in Book 1, as the fictional addressee of a sympotic epigram in which he is mocked for inappropriately, and ineptly, remembering a dinner invitation that was issued over drinks and therefore not to be taken seriously 1.

    The natural imagery of epigram places the epigram imagistically within the exterior, rural locus amoenus suggested by Antulla s garden tomb. However, the simple fact of the speaker s boasting to an addressee whose name was used earlier in a sympotic poem casts epigram as a speech act suitable to the urban, interior occasion of a convivium. Procillus relationship to death and life represents petty versions of themes that recur in this sequence: The epigram sets up Procillus as an ironic hero in the context of this sequence for hypothetically having control over the ability to end or continue his own life, for reasons that have to do with his emotional reaction to the content of the speaker s boasting.

    We can take Procillus reaction as a general figure for readers reception of a book of poetry: Procillus chooses to stop or continue based on the feelings or opinions that the speaker s utterances produce in him, and readers can stop or continue reading based on how they feel about the epigrams that they are reading.

    Procillus therefore represents the reader of a book of epigrams, who can continue reading or put the book aside as suits his tastes. Such a reader is the fictional Caedicianus in the final epigram of the sequence and of the book 1. Caedicianus threatens the integrity of Book 1 not by plagiarism or adulteration but by resisting closure. As a monument, the tomb or book, as emblematized by the mock-epitaph 1.

    The Antulla epigrams illustrate the fundamental association of epitaphs proper with naming. In the first epigram of the pair, Faenius Telesphorus has sanctified the name of his daughter nomenque sacravit,. In the second epigram, although Two of the non-sepulchral epigrams make a point of naming characters, too. In the speaker makes a point of naming his bookseller: Linguistically speaking, the historical etymology of nomen is from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning name that is cognate with, for example, Greek.

    The first of the Antulla epigrams implies as it has to that Antulla is worthy of having her name read, and ironically compounds the pathos of her death by saying that her father, as a member of the older generation, would more deservedly be read dignior ipse legi,: The three epigrams on Martial s own poetry also deal with the question of whether Martial himself, as represented by his book of epigrams, is dignus legi.

    The punch line of epigram is a self-deprecatory joke by the speaker pretending to agree that the bookseller s asking price is Not a fair price literally, You re not worth that much, Tanti non es,.

    In a similar vein, the following epigram, 1. Epigram uses language of time and leisure rather than money bonas This last epigram the earliest in sequence of the three discussed here introduces the theme of dignus legi, applied to literary worth, but hints, too, at its use as an explicitly epitaphic theme in the Antulla epigrams, by the figurative use of the verb perire in the last line: Pollius does not allow Martial s poetic trifles to perish.

    Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine. Paris , si bene te novi if I know you well, ; quas nec ipse iam novi which I myself no longer recognize, ; si novi bene te if I know you well,.

    In Atrectus bookshop, the poets labels or tituli that mark the books available inside for purchase are displayed on the doorposts for advertising purposes.

    The speaker suggests to Lupercus that he may read all the way through the labels thus displayed perlegas, In the context of the sepulchral epigrams with which epigram is juxtaposed, the image of skimming through names displayed publicly suggests the activity of a passer-by perusing the names on tombstones lining one of the many roads leading out of Rome. The verb perire is almost never found without some association with literal or figurative death; synchronically, in the Latin usage of Martial s day, the sense of the end predominates.

    But in the context of the end of Book 1, which suggests the path the reader takes past Antulla s tomb and up to Pear Street and along the Argiletum in Rome, Martial revivifies the etymological sense of perire, to go all the way through, emphasizing the journey rather than the destination, when he mocks Caedicianus in epigram for wanting to read his book too much all the way through, overshooting the end.

    Verbal cues, converging in epigram 1. Variations of the word novi I know [you] tie together 1. The theme and vocabulary of invidia, jealousy, is picked up in the context of vocative addresses in both and Forms of vivere, to live, ironically tie together and All three echoed words, thematically significant, are phonetically connected with the repetition of the syllable vi novi, invide, vivat.

    These thematically significant verbal cues, in combination with the commemorative, epitaph-like function of Book 1, moreover, explain why epigram is, in fact, a thematically appropriate opening epigram for the sevenepigram closing sequence.

    Here for the sake of argument I assume that the Priscus of is a historical amicus rather than just a fictional target of skoptic epigram. On the surface, epigram is about the lower-status speaker taking liberties with his lord and master dominum regemque, 1 by abandoning the 23 if However, Martial, as poet, is able to grant Priscus whether friend or patron true commemoration by using his proper name, Priscus, instead of a generic honorific, and denies ephemeral decus in favor of a more lasting form of recognition that deems him dignus legi in this book of epigrams.

    Its erotic boasting provides a point of comic relief between the two sepulchral epigrams and serves as a formal pivot between the two halves of the sequence.

    Epigram also serves an important thematic function. The addressee Procillus fantasizes about having control over the boundary between life and death. But the control does not truly belong to Procillus, but rather to the speaker, whose own actions provoke Procillus to want to hang himself out of envy or continue living out of Schadenfreude.

    In the context of Book 1 we may see the speaker of as a figure for the poet, and Procillus as a figure for the reader, in that the relationship between the two of them plays out a tension between forward momentum and coming to a stop, the tension between finishing with one epigram or going on to read more. The final seven epigrams of Book 1, therefore, form a much-needed closural sequence. On the one hand, this closural sequence, through explicit comment in the joke addressed to Caedicianus and the seemingly arbitrary arrangement and number of the epigrams, acknowledges the unboundedness of a book of epigrams.

    On the other hand, this seven-epigram sequence also prepares the reader for closure, and takes a set of epigrams on apparently disparate topics and arranges them thematically and formally to create an end for the book of epigrams. By bringing the book of epigrams to an end it marks the integrity of the book of epigrams here is the boundary, Martial implies, despite Caedicianus best efforts. The closural sequence marks the collection as a book of epigrams, rather than an arbitrary aggregation of discrete units.

    This closure causes the entire book of epigrams itself, because of its subtle formal integrity, to serve as a monument in its own right. Martial, like Antulla or Priscus, is dignus legi, worthy of being read, in a text that both monumentalizes him for posterity and places him and his reader amidst the life of city and country. More than 79 cases of children born with congenital defects are known from Greek and Roman literature.

    Although it is extremely difficult if not impossible to identify a single potential cause for it, attempts at explanation are already found in ancient writers. With the help of modern teratological science many teratogenous causes can partly be identified. Some of the most probable factors among these were the same as today: Congenital disorder, malformation, lead poisoning, teratogens, teratogenous factors.

    Introduction Congenital defects are and were looked at as something extraordinary during history. Major abnormalities are apparent and they occur frequently enough cca.

    At first glance the topic of congenital deformities belongs exclusively to the science of medicine, however a deeper investigation of the related statistics and a root cause analysis indicate the socio-cultural and economic background as principal factors, as well.

    This way, maybe surprisingly, a scientific investigation of exotic and somewhat marginal topics, like the analysis of congenital diseases in the ancient world reveals the underlying complex system of interactions between human beings and nature, the complex influence of culture, habits and economy.

    Newborns suffering of congenital abnormalities were treated in ancient times as monsters, something out of the range of normal and acceptable human life better to be kept secret. Deformed newborns were looked at more as strange animals, like human beings; and they were granted with no or little survival chance in order to eliminate the shame on the family. More than 79 such descriptions are known today completely or to some extent, however even the modern science is unable to produce an approximate estimation on the total numbers due to the lack of exact data by Cassius Dio.

    Medical background The origins of congenital defects were largely unknown until today, and their causes remain frequently unidentified. Such defects originate in disorders during the process of ontogenesis, the process of development leading from the fertilized oocyte to a mature organism.

    Despite the fact that modern medicine identified a huge variety of potential causes of congenital defects, it is extremely difficult if not impossible to diagnose exactly the origin of congenital deformities in an actual case, because all malformations are in a sense multifactoral and also because the four main factors the dosage of the teratogen, the developmental phase, the genotype of the mother and the foetus and the environmental factors cause different problems in various stages of the pregnancy and they can also influence each other s effect.

    The word teratology is a derivative of the ancient Greek word of teras monster , used already that time in the context of medicine to refer to a grossly malformed foetus or newborn. The pathogenic factors constituting the potential roots of deformities can be grouped into three main categories. The first part of these cases having genetic origins i.

    The most widely known representative of this category is Down-syndrome. The third category consists of teratogenous causes, like the illnesses of the mother, different chemicals, drugs, environmental impacts and nutritional defi- 2 For a summary of all cases mentioned by e. Allély, Les enfants malformés et considérés comme prodigia à Rome et en Italie sous la République.

    Revue des Études Anciennes R. Assumptions for the reconstruction If we look at the phenomenon of congenital diseases from the point of view of biology, all potential human factors vanish behind the statistics as a simple statistical entry. However, a deeper analysis of the human factors allows the discovery of the interdependencies between the social and biological influences affecting the individuals. Genetic and chromosome defects It can be assumed that the relative frequency of the occurrence of cases related to genetic and chromosome defects were probably of the same frequency in ancient times or due to the lack of medical screening slightly higher as nowadays, since they are predominantly phenomena related to human biology.

    Modern statistics on the geographical distribution of genetic and chromosome defects indicate no major deviances despite huge differences in the level of economy, culture and habits, with the exception of some singular locations having extreme environmental risks like areas near to nuclear or chemical catastrophes in modern times or risks originating in specific religion or culture rules like preference of marriage between relatives.

    This independence justifies the assumption, that this category is independent of the social factors, and accordingly thus modern time statistics approximate properly that of the ancient world. Teratogenous factors However, the estimation of change of teratogenous factors over time is an extremely difficult problem. At first glance, there are several potentially important, but contradictory factors. On the one hand, an embryo in ancient times 4 R. Garland, The eye of the beholder: Moreover, these categories cannot be analysed per se in isolation, as humans adapt their behaviour, thus implicitly their risk exposure to their environments.

    Thus, the category of teratogenous factors is a historical one, showing a strong dependence on the social surroundings. Information sources The investigation of the potential causes of congenital defects in the ancient era can rely on two fundamental information sources: In modern times, many questions are still open and are subject of heavy scientific discussions despite the discovery of numerous new facts and findings. At the same time many misinterpretations about them circulate in the public arena.

    He was well acquainted with the different kinds of malformation and he described frequently phenomena related to teratology in detail, primarily in the fourth book of his work entitled De generatione animalium.

    His primary scope 5 R. München , , of which I discuss more theories hereafter. Warkany, Teratology of the past. For, following what has been said, it remains to give the reason for such monsters. If the movements imparted by the semen are resolved and the material contributed by the mother is not controlled by them, at last there remains the most general substratum, that is to say the animal.

    Then people say that the child has the head of a ram or a bull, and so on with other animals, as that a calf has the head of a child or a sheep that of an ox. All these monsters result from the causes stated above That, however, it is impossible for such a monstrosity to come into existence I mean one animal in another is shown by the great difference in the period of gestation between man, sheep, dog, and ox, it being impossible for each to be developed except in its proper time This is the description of some of the monsters talked about; others are such because certain parts of their form are multiplied so that they are born with many feet or many heads.

    In contrary to his predecessors, Aristotle tried to find multiple alternative and specific explanations for the particular types of congenital defects. Interestingly, he refers to as monsters teras all people dissimilar to their parents in the same way as Hesiod Works and Days For instance, 1 2nd century writer Soran 11 had the same misbelief as Plato 12 5 4 c.

    BC , that the limbs of a newborn have to be fixed with the help of a tight bandage in order to avoid their deformation due to motion. For instance, they were already aware of the importance of inheritance, especially the proneness to illnesses and congenital deformities of the children of people suffering a 8 R. Garland discussed in detail Aristotle s writings about teratology op. Plutarch describes the displeasure of the Spartans upon the decision of their king Archidamus of a short stature marrying a similarly puny wife in order to avoid procreating tiny kings instead of ordinary ones.

    If, then, children with bald heads are born to parents with bald heads; and children with blue eyes to parents who have blue eyes; and if the children of parents having distorted eyes squint also for the most part; and if the same may be said of other forms of the body, what is to prevent it from happening that a child with a long head should be produced by a parent having a long head?

    The following facts are well known: Birthmarks, moles, and even scars can reappear in descendants, a tattoo sometimes recurring up to the fourth generation among the Dacians. He wrote already at that time about the dangers of abortion frequently carried out by an unskilled person or the mother herself, as such interventions may lead to permanent damage to the uterus, which seriously endangers the health of a would-be embryo.

    While in other cases the abortion was not carried out to its very end, but the embryo was severely injured leading to a deformed newborn as a consequence of the incomplete intervention. He enlists several other risk factors in Chapter 25 of his book on female illnesses De mulierum affectibus , like accidents affecting the mother, maternal dietary insufficiency or frequent unconsciousness potentially leading to deformations in the embryos.

    The ancient assumption about the dominating influence of the external impacts affecting the sperm and the mother in the instance of conception was a long lasting one. Basically, we can recognize a predecessor of the research of chromosome faults in the writings exposing the importance of the age of the fa- 14 Plutarch, Moralia. See also Aristotle, Historia animalium 7, b T.

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